Bonus Demonstration: Complex Modulations
Chopin was an innovator in many respects. The way he employed modulation really expanded the possibilities of tonality and paved the way for composers like Debussy and others to push things even further. My analysis of this waltz - composed during the final years of Chopin's life - is my own interpretation of what I am seeing and hearing. But this is a highly personal language, and if you find other analyses that look at things differently, that is to be expected. So do not worry if you have trouble following some of this, or if you find yourself disagreeing with me on specifics here or there. Just making the effort to go through this amazing work will be worthwhile in itself!